Mapping the glass ceiling: The EU Regions where women thrive and where they are held back Monitoring EU regional gender equality with the female achievement and disadvantage indices
In some EU regions women are able to flourish, while in others they languish behind. This paper presents two regional indices: the Female Achievement Index and the Female Disadvantage Index. They reveal in which regions women are achieving more and in which women are at a disadvantage compared to men. The two indices are based on 33 indicators grouped into seven domains. The paper shows that, on average, women in more developed regions are able to achieve more and are at less of a disadvantage, while most women in less developed regions face big challenges. Within countries, women in capital regions tend to achieve more and are at less of a disadvantage. In general, regions with a lower female achievement index have a lower gross domestic product per capita, while regions with a higher level of female achievement have a higher level of human development. Finally, the quality of government is higher in regions where women achieve more.